The history of origin in Slovakia dates
back to the 18th century, especially in areas around Orava and Spiš, where the
cloth was used and the main production material was canvas.
Blueprint has become an important part of
the folk clothing. The fabric used, did not have to be wash frequently and it
was not costly, because the print on it was cheap.
The blueprint dyeing technique was
applied mainly to the canvas, but other substances were used later, e.g.
cotton. The patterns on the fabric were hand painted, but later a wooden or
metal stamp was used.
Firstly, the canvas was boiled in water,
where calcium hydroxide and soda were added. Later, the cloth was washed in
sulfuric acid diluted with water and rinsed in running water. After drying,
starching and calendaring, the canvas was ready to print patterns and for
colouring. A cover blend, called pap, was used for suppressing, which was
applied to the blueprint form. The mentioned form was soaked in a container of
pap and then applied to the canvas. After the cover blend had dried, the canvas
in parallel folds was hung on an iron structure and immersed for 20-30 minutes
into a cold colouring mixture. The basic component in it was indigo. The whole
canvas was colored, except for the places where pap was put, which indigo did
not accept. The soaking process was repeated several times, because then the
colour was darker. After staining, the fabric was placed in a weak sulfuric
acid solution to remove the pap and a white pattern formed on a dark blue
The use of blueprints was versatile, for
example sewing skirts, making blankets, bedding, scarves, aprons, tablecloths,
curtains and many more.